by Olaf Helmer (Dover, 1995) and, ed.

But this is not an independent argument, although, properly understood, it serves to emphasize a point in the general a posteriori proof which is calculated to appeal with particular force to many minds.

by Peggy Kamuf (Columbia, 1991);, ed.

by Jan Wolenski and Eckhart Kohler (Kluwer, 1998).

For a discussion of his life and works, see .

Not everyone likes the idea of "original sin," and it is also pointed out that in Judaism itself there is the atonement for sin every year, on Yom Kippur.

by Jo Ellen Jacobs and Paula Harms Payne (Indiana, 1998) and, ed.

We are left to conclude that knowledge of good and evil together with eternal life are the attributes of divinity (the terms of which changed with the Greek gods), neither of which God intended to bestow on Adam and Eve.

A statement which is  because, , it cannot be used to make a false assertion.

Christopher Smith (Yale, 1983);Howard P.

(1) Theist: How can you say the Bible isn't true, just look at (points out some arbitrary passage)?
(2) Atheist: But (points out some contradictions or falsehoods) makes it seem unlikely that it can be true,let alone the word of God. You are entitled to your beliefs, but ...
(3) (Theist cuts off atheist by throwing a Bible at him and knocking him unconscious.)
(4) Theist: Ha, let's see you argue now.
(5) Therefore, God exists.

State, 1988); Hans-Georg Gadamer, , tr.

,, 2:47, Juan Mascaró translation [Penguin Books, 1962, p.52]Pu Songling, "An Otherworldly Examination," , translated and edited by John Minford [Penguin Books, 2006, pp.6-8]

Recommended Reading:Peter Singer, (Oxford, 2000) and, ed.

Psychologists and sociologists of religion also began to doubt thatreligious beliefs were rooted in irrationality, psychopathology, andother atypical psychological states, as James (1902) and other earlypsychologists had assumed. In the United States, in the late 1930sthrough the 1960s, psychologists developed a renewed interest forreligion, fueled by the observation that religion refused todecline—thus casting doubt on the secularizationthesis—and seemed to undergo a substantial revival (see Stark1999 for an overview). Psychologists of religion have madeincreasingly fine-grained distinctions among types of religiosity,including extrinsic religiosity (being religious as means to an end,for instance, getting the benefits of being in a social group) andintrinsic religiosity (people who adhere to religions for the sake oftheir teachings) (Allport and Ross 1967). Psychologists andsociologists now commonly study religiosity as an independentvariable, with an impact on, for instance, health, criminality,sexuality, and social networks.

Example: "If neither John nor Betty is here, then John is not here."Also see .

and the other used such methods to defend about the natural world.

The robber baron's cruelty may sometimes sleep, his cupidity may at some point be satiated, but those who torment us for our own good will torment us without end, for they do so with the approval of their own conscience.C.S.

State, 1997);Herman Rapaport,  (Routledge, 2003);Christopher Johnson,  (Routledge, 1999); and, ed.

Waanders, (Benjamins, 1984);Immanuel Kant, , tr.

The relationship between religion and science is the subject ofcontinued debate in philosophy and theology. To what extent arereligion and science compatible? Are religious beliefs sometimesconducive to science, or do they inevitably pose obstacles toscientific inquiry? The interdisciplinary field of “science andreligion”, also called “theology and science”, aimsto answer these and other questions. It studies historical andcontemporary interactions between these fields, and providesphilosophical analyses of how they interrelate.

Descartes's efforts to achieve certainty in the face of mark the origins of modern.

Peters, (NYU, 1967);Francisco J.

they depend for their existence on other things, and these again on others; but, however far back we may extend this series of effects and dependent causes, we must, if human reason is to be satisfied, come ultimately to a cause that is not itself an effect, in other words to an uncaused cause or self-existent being which is the ground and cause of all being.