3. Lawyer then active in NY politics
5. 1918 Narrowly won Governorship of NY,
This demonstrates the principle that it is always important to be quite clear about thedesired objective. Even a simple device like stone lines can be built to help them toremain permeable, or to silt up as quickly as possible, or to silt up in the depressionsonly -according to the objective.
6. 1920 - VP Candidate with James A. Cox
When stop-wash lines are intended to divert water out of small channels, it isdesirable to reduce the permeability at this point. This is done using the principle ofthe reverse filter. The main structure is composed of large stones, then on the upstreamside smaller stones are packed, but large enough so that they cannot be washed through thegaps in the large stones. Upstream of the small stones a layer of gravel is added. Waterwill still flow through the structure, but slowly, and it will build up in the depressionand flow out on either side eventually finding a way through the rock barrier andcontinuing its path down the slope. This same principle can be used on a larger scale forgully control structures.
· crop residues may be of value as feed for livestock;
Soil conservation practices include minimum and no-tillage, which maintain high levels of crop residues on the soil surface and reduce heavy machinery traffic. Crop rotation and periodic use of clover or alfalfa hay crops increase soil organic matter and lead to improved soil structure and fewer compaction problems. The use of manure and adequate fertilizer has a similar effect. Seeding of areas where runoff water collects to create grassed waterways also helps reduce soil erosion.
Surface manipulation such as ridging is discussed in Chapter 5.
None of the four Atlantic Provinces is well-endowed with highly productive soils. The soils tend to be inherently weak many are acidic. The intensive production of and vegetable crops has further reduced organic matter levels, damaged soil structure and led to severe soil erosion on sloping land.