2. Attended Harvard and Colombia

Ripping or subsoiling can be beneficial, either to increase the porosity of the soil,or to break a pan which is reducing permeability. The deep placement of fertilizer canalso be used to encourage more rooting at depth, but again the application of thistechnique to subsistence farming will be difficult.

3. Lawyer then active in NY politics

4. 1912 - Assistant Sec. Of Navy

5. 1918 Narrowly won Governorship of NY,

This demonstrates the principle that it is always important to be quite clear about thedesired objective. Even a simple device like stone lines can be built to help them toremain permeable, or to silt up as quickly as possible, or to silt up in the depressionsonly -according to the objective.

6. 1920 - VP Candidate with James A. Cox

When stop-wash lines are intended to divert water out of small channels, it isdesirable to reduce the permeability at this point. This is done using the principle ofthe reverse filter. The main structure is composed of large stones, then on the upstreamside smaller stones are packed, but large enough so that they cannot be washed through thegaps in the large stones. Upstream of the small stones a layer of gravel is added. Waterwill still flow through the structure, but slowly, and it will build up in the depressionand flow out on either side eventually finding a way through the rock barrier andcontinuing its path down the slope. This same principle can be used on a larger scale forgully control structures.

B. What did Roosevelt do when he got elected?

· crop residues may be of value as feed for livestock;

Soil conservation practices include minimum and no-tillage, which maintain high levels of crop residues on the soil surface and reduce heavy machinery traffic. Crop rotation and periodic use of clover or alfalfa hay crops increase soil organic matter and lead to improved soil structure and fewer compaction problems. The use of manure and adequate fertilizer has a similar effect. Seeding of areas where runoff water collects to create grassed waterways also helps reduce soil erosion.

Surface manipulation such as ridging is discussed in Chapter 5.

None of the four Atlantic Provinces is well-endowed with highly productive soils. The soils tend to be inherently weak many are acidic. The intensive production of and vegetable crops has further reduced organic matter levels, damaged soil structure and led to severe soil erosion on sloping land.

-Harry Hopkins - Social Worker and the architect ofmuch of the New Deal.

D. What did Roosevelt mean by relief, recovery and reform?

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The transformation of fertile land into desert through human activity and shifts in climate.

FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT -- provided minimum wage for workers.

Crops that provide high-density and year-round ground cover offer greater protection against soil than row-cropping or cropping systems that include extensive use of cultivated fallow. Minimizing the amount of tillage used for weed control or seedbed preparation reduces the breakdown of soil structure (the arrangement of soil particles into granules or clods), and keeps more plant residues on the soil surface compared to more intensive tillage. This helps maintain the soil and control erosion.

1. Relief - Immediate action taken to halt theeconomies deterioration.

HOME OWNERS LOAN ACT -- government financing of home mortgages.

Wind erosion is seldom a problem, and is mostly limited to places where the soils are very sandy or consist of organic matter (e.g., cultivated marshes). Rows of trees or shrubs can be planted in these areas to create wind breaks to reduce wind speeds, and crop residues can be kept on the soil surface to protect the soils from wind erosion.