by Ernest Barker (Oxford, 1962);, ed.

Although some few natural inequalities among individual human beings are inevitable, Rousseau argued that the far more significant moral and political inequalities are purely conventional in origin.

For a discussion of his life and work, see .

Above all, Voltaire bitterly rejected all claims of social or religious authority.

Strawson, (Routledge, 1979); andAlbert A.

For Rawls, as for most contemporary contract theorists, the object ofagreement is not, at least directly, the grounds of politicalobligation, but the principles of justice that regulate the basicinstitutions of society. Freeman (2007a: 23), perhaps the preeminentstudent of Rawls, focuses on “the social role of norms in publiclife.” Buchanan is concerned with justifying constitutionalorders of social and political institutions (2000 [1975]). Gauthier(1986), Scanlon (1998), Darwall (2006), Southwood (2010), and Gaus(2011a) employ the contract device to justify social moral claims.

Guthrie, (Cambridge, 1971);, ed.

Suppose, then, that we have arrived at some social contract. Dependingon the initial justificatory problem, it will yield an outcomeR (principles, rules, etc. that have some normative propertyN—such as justice, morality, authority, obligation,legitimacy, mutual benefit, and so on. But, supposing that thecontract has generated a principle, rule, etc. with the relevantnormative property, precisely what is shown by the fact that thisprinciple or rule was generated through the contractual device?

He was the teacher of , from whom we have our best knowledge of his philosophical methods.

Perrin, (Garland, 1993); and, ed.

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For a discussion of his life and works, see .

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Recommended Reading:Germaine De Stael, , tr.

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It is concern for private property, according to Rousseau, that gives rise to civil society.

Bremmer, (Princeton, 1987); and

To explicate the idea of the social contract we analyze contractualapproaches into five elements: (1) the role of the social contract (2)the parties (3) agreement (4) the object of agreement (5) what theagreement is supposed to show.

Recommended Reading:Lewis Carroll,  (Dover, 1958) andLinda Claire Burns,  (Kluwer, 1991).

Newton Malony (Fortress, 1998).

Since the legitimacy of the social contract depends upon the unanimous consent of all the governed, the sovereign general will is fully expressed only in an assembly of the entire population.

Under the influence of , medieval philosophers focussed on of the human soul, and identified it as.

Abuses of power can, of course, threaten the very life of the state.

Many of the recent developments in bargaining theory and the socialcontract have adopted dynamic (Muldoon 2017, Vanderschraafforthcoming) or even evolutionary approaches to modeling bargaining(Alexander and Skyrms 1999, Skyrms 2014). This highlights a generaldivide in bargaining models between what we can call axiomatic andprocess models. The traditional, axiomatic, approach to the bargainingproblem going back to John Nash, codified by John Harsanyi, andpopularized by R. Duncan Luce and Howard Raiffa (1957). Out of thistradition has come several core bargaining solutions. Each uses aslightly different set of axioms to generate a unique and generallyapplicable way to divide a surplus. These include, most notably, theegalitarian (Raiffa 1953), the Nash (1950), the stabilized Nash(Moehler 2010), the Kalai-Smordinsky (1975), and Gauthier’sminimax relative concession (1986). The main point of contention amongthese theories is whether to employ Nash’s independence axiom orto use a monotonicity axiom (as the egalitarian, Kalai-Smorodinsky,and minimax relative concession do), although, to one degree oranother all of the axioms have been contested.