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In addition to interplay between the convergence and divergence mechanisms, refractive errors may further modify the innervational pattern that influences the position of the eyes. In a patient with uncorrected myopia, less than normal accommodative effort is required during near vision thus causing decreased accommodative convergence. According to Donders this constant under stimulation of convergence may cause an exodeviation to develop 15. Similarly in patients with high degree of uncorrected hypermetropia no effort is made to overcome the refractive error by an accommodative effort and clear vision is unattainable 16. This may lead to development of an exodeviation on the basis of an under stimulated and thus under active convergence mechanism that causes the AC/A ratio to remain low. Thus refractive errors through their effect on accommodation are undoubtedly one of the prime causes of misalignment of the eyes. Jampolsky et al emphasized that anisomyopia and anisoastigmatism bear distinct relationships to exodeviation 17. Unequal clarity of retinal images may present an obstacle to fusion, facilitate suppression and therefore contribute to the pathogenesis of exotropia.

Retinal disparity essay Essay Help

cues for depth that involve BOTH eyes, such as retinal disparity and convergence

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It is the ability to align the eyes in such a manner that sensory fusion can be maintained. The stimulus for these fusional eye movements is retinal disparity outside panum’s area and the eyes moving in opposite direction (vergence). Unlike sensory fusion, motor fusion is the exclusive function of the extrafoveal retinal periphery.

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The simultaneous stimulation of non-corresponding or disparate retinal elements by an object point causes this point to be localized in two different subjective visual directions. An object point seen simultaneously in two directions appears double. Double vision is the hallmark of retinal disparity.

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In normal Binocular Single Vision, optical stimulus will excite a cortical cell only if it is presented to its two receptive fields simultaneously. Although two receptive fields are involved, only one object feature is detected by each cortical cell and assigned by it to a single locus in space. The two receptive fields do not always occupy anatomically identical regions in the two retinas. At a given locus in the retino-optic cortical map there are cells whose fields have exactly corresponding points in the two retina and cells whose fields have slightly different position in the two eyes. This retinal field disparity which is caused by the difference in direction or distance of the fields in each retina forms the basis of Panum’s fusion area and is detected by sensitive binocular neurons giving rise to binocular vision and stereopsis.

Perception Lecture Notes: Depth, Size, and Shape Professor David Heeger What you should know about this lecture. Binocular cues (vergence, disparity)

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imaginary 3D surface in the room in front of you that includes the object you are fixating on and all other points in 3D space that project to positions in the two retinae. The geometric horopter (the set of points with zero disparity) is a circle that includes the fixation point and the optical centers (lenses) of the two eyes.

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Perception Lecture Notes: Depth, Size, and Shape

10% of people are stereoblind. Some are totally stereoblind, some are blind only to either crossed or uncrossed disparities. Some stereoblindness is caused by (wandering eye). If not treated/fixed at a very early age (infancy), binocular vision never develops properly. Some people with strabismus end up with (sometimes called ). Amblyopia is a cortical blindness. Amblyopia is a general term for a visual deficit that has nothing to do with the optics or structure of eye and retina. In amblyopia, the brain basically ignores inputs from one eye. Other people with untreated strabismus end up as alternate fixators who can see with either eye, but never use them both at the same time. That is, they first look at you with their left eye (while the right eye is diverged), then switch and look at you with their right eye (while the left eye is diverged). In either case, there is no binocular vision and no stereopsis.