Indigenous territories within Mexico, 1830s
Henry Clay & Theodore Frelinghuysen poster
After the fall of Tollan, the Toltec decline was gradual. Fortwo centuries the basin of Mexico was ruled by various Mexicagroups and Chichimecs (Dog People), who invaded the Toltecs fromthe northwest after their defenses were removed. Chichimec leaderXolotl settled at Tenayuca about 1201 and then made Texcoco acapital. Xolotl's son Nopaltzin killed Topiltzin's grandson Nauhyotl,the ruler of Culhuacan, possibly in 1248. Tochintecuhtli and Huetzinseem to have established a kingdom, and the latter was succeededby Nonoalcatl in 1272.
James K. Polk & George Dallas poster, 1844
In the central highlands of Mexico the Toltecs were dominantfrom the 10th to the 12th century with their major city at Tollan(Tula). Itzas arrived at Chichén about 918, and ToltecChichén was not destroyed until about 1250. A Mixtec legendtells of a ruler named Eight-Deer Ocelot-Claw, who succeeded hisfather as king of Tilantongo at age 19 in 1030, won several battles,married many wives and sired numerous children, went to Tollan,and tried to set up a bureaucratic empire at Tutupec by unitingit with Mixteca Alta and Baja. Eight-Deer had the men of the royalfamilies he conquered sacrificed, and he or his sons married theirwidows and daughters. When the ruler of Xipe-Bundle died in 1047,Eight-Deer was concerned that some of his relatives would tryto rule the city. So he allied himself with the Toltec Four-Tigerand sacrificed his half-brother Twelve-Earthquake. However, hislittle empire soon failed, and in 1063 Eight-Deer was defeated,captured and sacrificed.