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John C. Charles argues that these fictions have been overlooked because they deviate from two critical suppositions: that black literature is always about black life and that when it represents whiteness, it must attack white supremacy. The authors are, however, quite sympathetic in the treatment of their white protagonists, which Charles contends should be read not as a failure of racial pride but instead as a strategy for claiming creative freedom, expansive moral authority, and critical agency.

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It is not surprising that development aid arose in Africa just after the formal end of colonialism. In the short term, the Chinese use these institutes to mark their territory on the African landscape and this becomes a visible, symbolic marker of their power and presence on the continent in a way that is not as politically or socially sensitive as the creation of, say, military barracks or the Africom. A school also becomes a medium of propagating ways of seeing the world and it is an exceedingly effective way for a state to build and extend its cultural capital internationally.

Congress, State Legislatures, and the Future of Legislative Studies

The founding of these centres also represents an admission, perhaps learnt from the West, that economic and nuclear power alone do not go so far in terms of effective control of the world. To truly and fully control a people, the powers that be must also influence their cultural habits, their language and belief systems. This has been routinely referred to as soft power. This strategy of conquest has been previously deployed in Africa by France, Britain and the United States – expressed through the creation of enduring institutions of cultural dominance like Alliance Francaise, the British Council and the American Cultural Centre – with considerable success and a devastating effect on the African psyche, akin to what renowned African writers like Okot Bitek and Chinua Achebe wrote aboutregarding the colonial condition.

edited by Drewey Wayne Gunn and Jaime Harker

451, February 28, 2008, p.1054.

is a journal of scholarship devoted to autobiography, biography, diaries, letters and relations between lifewriting and other discourse. The editors invite manuscript submissions dealing with any aspect of lifewriting. Subject matter may be drawn from any period or genre but must show clear connections to the theory and practice of lifewriting. In addition to scholarly articles we invite contributions in the form of book reviews, calls for papers, announcements of conferences and the like.

is for sure one of the best universities not only in Texas but also in the United States.

Buckminster Fuller, Stanford University Press, 2009, 146-59.

Africa has many needs, but Chinese Confucius Institutes, Alliances Francaise, America Cultural Centres, the British Council or any other foreign institution of cultural control, are not among them. What Africa needs and lacks are its own ideological schools to build capacity in the many areas where it has a deficit. What Africa needs is a serious discourse initiated and led by Africans themselves. A discourse that explains the continent’s current position on the global stage, one that seeks to internally develop and define its own priorities and how to engage with the rest of the world – on its own terms.

Published in German as “” Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung, December 4, 2016, 55.

Journal of American History, Vol.

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Chen, Enabling Creative Chaos: The Organization Behind the Burning Man Event, by Katherine K.

7268 (October 29, 2009), pp.1206-1207.

Other possible threats include the continued marginalisation of African languages, symbols and heroes and the resultant self-emasculation of the African identity and other worst forms of enslavement that have never before been experienced, the increased subservience of African cultures to foreign ones, the rise of Chinatowns on the African landscape, expressed through new export growth centres, and the preservation of Africa’s position at the bottom of the global value chain. Combined with the already entrenched effects of American, British and French imperial presences on African culture, winning the ongoing cultural war that the Chinese have joined will be tough for Africa, requiring an ideological mind shift, a strong and enlightened national leadership and significant consensus. People would need to be willing to endure a period of upheaval.