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Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to find an open-source project that interests you. Start readingcode and reviewing bugs. Learn to contribute, and work your way in.

Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it:

There are two primary ways to organize your compare and contrast paper.

In the previous post we have already discussed how to check…

If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'llneed to become one in order to make it as a hacker. Otherwise you'llfind your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, andsocial approval.

Plagiarism is the use of someone’s work or ideas and…


To follow the path:
look to the master,
follow the master,
walk with the master,
see through the master,
become the master.

If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, thecurrent version lives at .

Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else).

But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker oreven merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages — youneed to learn how to think about programming problems in a generalway, independent of any one language. To be a real hacker, you needto get to the point where you can learn a new language in days byrelating what's in the manual to what you already know. This meansyou should learn several very different languages.

It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so.

It's best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java,Perl, and LISP. Besides being the most important hacking languages,they represent very different approaches to programming, and each willeducate you in valuable ways.

Younger hackers might find interesting and useful.

Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were fewlarge programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read andtinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software,programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) arenow widely available. Which brings me neatly to our next topic...

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September 2004 Remember the essays you had to write in high school?

Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to keepscore primarily by what other hackers think of your skill (this is whyyou aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call youone). This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work;also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or externalvalidation are involved in one's motivation at all.

The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackersbreak them.

You can find BSD Unix help and resources at .

(This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Children need to beguided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept somekinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than thetime he spends following orders. But that's a limited, consciousbargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not onoffer.)

So, if you want to be a hacker, repeat the following things untilyou believe them:

Develop your appreciation of puns and wordplay.

Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and theco-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written anexcellent essay called . His "recipe for programming success" is worthcareful attention.