Comparisons related to U.S. politics are listed on this page.

“We may define a republic to be, or at least may bestow that name on, a government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people; and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure, for a limited period, or during good behaviour. It is essential to such a government, that it be derived from the great body of the society, not from an inconsiderable proportion, or a favoured class of it; otherwise a handful of tyrannical nobles, exercising their oppressions by a delegation of their powers, might aspire to the rank of republicans, and claim for their government the honourable title of republic.”[1]

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An unsolicited email from Karl Rove.

[10] Essays of Brutus, Essay I, 10 October 1787, in Bruce Frohnen, ed., The Anti-Federalists: Selected Writings and Speeches (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1999), pg. 378.

Then, this morning, I received this.

[9] Essays of Brutus, Essay I, 10 October 1787, in Bruce Frohnen, ed., The Anti-Federalists: Selected Writings and Speeches (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1999), pg. 377.

Long live the republic, not the empire (Joni) or the corporate sanctuary (Rove).

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The preparation of these pages was influenced to some degree by a particular "Philosophy of History" as suggested by this quote from the famous Essay "History" by Ralph Waldo Emerson:-

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What does this state about the current understanding of constitutionalism, order, and liberty?

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It’s extremely difficult to imagine a similar kind of independence movement in the United States. Should Texas or Montana become really adamant about independence, the likelihood of every agency of the executive out of Washington and every branch of the military descending upon that movement is around 100%.

[2] James Madison, Federalist Papers, no. 39, pg. 196.

[3] James Madison, Federalist Papers, no. 39, pg. 197.

And, my complaint really isn’t partisan. War might or might not be justified. But, it’s time for the American people to have a national debate regarding the when, where, and why of the use of American force. The last four presidents have been particularly nasty in their abuse of war and war measures. Indeed, we’ve been in a near constant state of conflict since Ronald Reagan left office.

[5] Alexander Hamilton, Federalist Papers, no. 70, pg. 362-63.

[6] James Madison, Federalist Papers, no. 37, pg. 181.

The Federalist Papers consist of eighty-five letters written to newspapers in the late 1780s to urge ratification of the U.S. Constitution. With the Constitution needing approval from nine of thirteen states, the press was inundated with letters about the controversial document. Celebrated statesmen Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay weighed in with a series of essays under the pseudonym “Publius,” arguing that the proposed system would preserve the Union and empower the federal government to act firmly and coherently in the national interest. These articles, written in the spirit both of propaganda and of logical argument, were published in book form as The Federalist in 1788.