The papers in are about this course.

For instance, if NDEs are transitions to another world initiated by something leaving the body, then NDEs ought to begin with OBEs. But a substantial portion of prototypical Western NDEs do not include OBEs at all, and non-Western near-death OBE accounts are sporadic. Are NDErs who do not report OBEs simply amnesic about leaving the body, even though NDErs commonly report recalling their NDEs more sharply than any other events in their lives? Why do out-of-body NDEs in the West typically transition quickly from seeing the physical body and its immediate surroundings to another NDE element, while NDErs from Guam evidently "project" thousands of miles away to see relatives living in America? These sorts of questions are awkward for those taking a survivalist interpretation of NDEs.

Basic Writings is on the page.

 Basic Concepts . Translated by Gary Aylesworth, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1993.

. Translated by and , Indiana University Press, 2010.

In the case of the , evidently any such change would go undetected: the only relevant question to that detail would be whether she had seemed "to be aware of things going on elsewhere, as if by extrasensory perception," a question that she would've answered "Yes, and the facts have been checked out" on both hypothetical administrations even if a description of her hair had changed. Simply put, Greyson's follow-up study would not be able to detect if an NDEr recounted "veridical details" or "prophetic" visions than those that were first reported. It would only be able to determine if later reports included such elements when they were from the initial reports—a gross rather than subtle change. Although I made my point slightly clearer when responding to Tart, I regret failing to fully spell it out (as I do here) when directly responding to either Greyson or Tart's commentary, as my lack of specificity evidently led to a misunderstanding about exactly what I was arguing. In a letter to the editor in the next issue (to which I did not respond), Greyson pointed out that his finding applied to the "paranormal" features measured by the scale as much as it did to the overall scale scores. But my concern was with potential changes in NDE accounts that, if they existed, would not produce changes in either overall scale scores, or changes to answers to specific subsets of scale questions. Since the scale questions are rather general, .

RING-GIVING: See discussion under .

I should note that Greyson and I agree that had any embellishment occurred within the on average 17.7 years between the NDE and the administration of the Greyson NDE Scale, this study would not have found it, for it was not designed to look for it. However, it is important to note that even within the period between the two administrations of the scale, the follow-up study fails to rule out the possibility of embellishment of the sort that would not be measured by the Greyson NDE Scale. In my reply to Charles Tart's commentary, for example, I asked whether a hypothetical change in how Pam Reynolds described her hair (namely, how it was shaved) would have even been detected by such limited measurements of embellishment.

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Three dialogues written towards the end of World War II.

Unlike Western cases, life events are not viewed or relived as flashbacks. Landscapes are common in Thai NDEs, but typically unpleasant, as in the tours of the various hells. And while "Western NDErs may reach a 'point of no return' and choose to return to life, Thai NDErs are typically told they were taken because of a clerical mistake and told to return to the body" (177).

The Concept of Time. Translated by William McNeill, Oxford, Blackwell, 1992.

As it reveals itself in beings, Being withdraws.

V. Krishnan noted that it is difficult to reconcile the fact that OBErs "nearly always" find themselves looking down on the body from above with the hypothesis that something literally leaves the body during spontaneous OBEs and NDEs:

January 19th from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. and January 20th from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.

Here's what means, in "Overcoming Metaphysics".

First, there is the observation that only part of her head was shaved. Perhaps she could have guessed this at the time of her experience, but there is no need even for this in order to account for the reported observation. Surely Pam would have noticed this soon after awaking from general anesthesia—by seeing her reflection, feeling her hair, or being asked about it by visitors. And she certainly would have known about it, one way or the other, by the time she was released from the hospital. Indeed, if her hair had been shaved presurgery, or at any time prior to her general anesthesia, she would have known about it well her OBE. And patients undergoing such a risky procedure are standardly given a consent briefing where even the cosmetic effects of surgery are outlined—if not explicitly in a doctor's explanation, then at least incidentally in any photographs, diagrams, or other sources illustrating what the procedure entails. So Pam may have learned (to her surprise) that her head would be only partially shaved in a consent briefing her experience, but 'filed away' and consciously forgot about this information given so many other more pressing concerns on her mind at the time. That would be exactly the sort of mundane, subconscious fact we would expect a person to recall later during an altered state of consciousness. And although we are not given the exact date of the operation, Sabom reports that the procedure took place in August 1991 (38). He later tells us that he interviewed Pam for the first time on November 11, 1994 (186). That leaves over three years between the date of Pam's NDE and Sabom's interview—plenty of time for memory distortions to have played a role in her report of the experience. So there is nothing remarkable about this particular observation.